Since the tragedy in Kemerovo TC “Winter cherry” has been more than four months. The people are still experiencing its consequences — the pain has subsided. To speak about this unfathomable grief with people strangers nobody particularly wants. But to analyze what happened between the refuse, while trying to understand the underlying causes of the hard life in the region. About how along with the times changing residents of the city, in the article “the”.Atypical Siberia
The aircraft of all airlines flying from Moscow to Kemerovo in the early morning. In the rays of the rising sun the traveller with wonder sees not the Siberian landscape — instead of relying impenetrable forest extends around cultivated fields, roads, seen a huge number of towns and villages. Kuzbass is the most agglomerated region, in Siberia, there is the highest population density, and natural conditions are very attractive for agriculture. Not only are ripening pears and cherries, but even melons. It turns out that there where an abundance of coal, and the temperature of the earth is higher than in neighboring regions.
Nature has endowed this land with treasures. What do you mean Kuzbass for Russia? Almost 60 percent of the production of coal, and a significant group of valuable grades of coking coal — 100%. In addition, 13 percent of iron and steel, 23% long steel products, more than 11 percent of aluminium. And various high-tech alloys, chemical fibers and yarns, silk fabrics, mining scraper conveyors. It would seem that life in the region must be a tale, and yet in the region with a low cost of living in Siberia. Wages below the national twenty per cent, and per capita income by a quarter.
After landing, you can see that the reality is much more prosaic fact that seemed to be something unusual in the air. No, of course, there are regions in Russia worse the Kemerovo region, however, among the poorest regions certainly not so generously gifted by nature. “Kemerovo, as well as other cities of Kuzbass, the region’s early industrialization of the 20-ies and 30-ies of the last century, with high prestige of miners’ work. In the ‘ 90s quickly became a thing of the past good salaries. And working conditions, even in Soviet times was very heavy. Miners began to buzz on this wave and popped Aman Tuleyev,” says MSU Professor, Director of regional program of Independent Institute for social policy Natalia Zubarevich in an interview to “echo of Moscow”.
It’s been over four months since then, as after a terrible tragedy in the shopping center “Winter cherry” under the pressure of public opinion, resigned the Governor of the Kemerovo region, and at least not in the character of Siberians complaining, but talking about life is inevitably slipping into, say, the analysis of the activities of Aman Tuleyev — man, as said by all our interlocutors, a remarkable talent and definitely a great orator.The former Governor
About Amangeldy Tuleyev, the Kemerovo remembered as suddenly as it seems sometimes, without any direct reason and without any pressure. Sovetskiy Prospekt, the main street of the city, a masterpiece of Stalinist architecture — dug far and wide. “Here! The pipes are laid. Finally change,” — says the driver got stuck in traffic a taxi. Then, making Mat pause, adds enthusiastically: “so Many years Tuleyev couldn’t do. Didn’t want to engage in such nonsense”. On it goes now a lot of myths. For example, Tuleyev accused that many people register their cars in the Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions, explaining that in some extraordinary tax on vehicles, which allegedly introduced the former Governor.
Meanwhile, this story has a very pragmatic explanation, and its roots are approximately in 2013. Since that time, catastrophically began to fall direct investment in the region over the next three years they dropped by as much as 40 percent, and this is one of many sad records region. And that future jobs — and people immediately felt a change. As a consequence, another “achievement” of the edge — active migration.
And to leave are not so much in Moscow and St. Petersburg, which is typical for the Northern and far Eastern regions, as in the neighboring cities — Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk. A comparison with more affluent neighbors had to hear constantly. “In Tomsk literally full of life, — says Alexei, a student of Kemerovo University. Even to compare our city is impossible, though Tomsk the same population of a city like ours. And it is only a hundred miles away”.
“One of the city events showed me the finished salad. The label contained the manufacturer from Tomsk. It is clear that nobody did and no luck here for three hundred kilometers — made it to Kemerovo. Just the entrepreneur decided to register there, because the conditions for small and medium businesses have the worst” — says Yury Skvortsov, the Deputy of the Kemerovo city Council since 1996 and a former associate of Aman Tuleev.Socialism in separately taken subject of Federation
In Kemerovo I still remember how in the 90-ies of the risen political star Aman Tuleyev — the name of the protector of miners spread throughout the country. With him pinned many hopes — it seemed that his victory will be solved all the problems of the region. “In the 90-ies started the hardest break-up of the coal industry, and Tuleyev was able to ride it, — continues Natalia Zubarevich. — He defended the interests of the region. Later the feds. And the people were to him for that sincerely grateful. A man of great strength, he was able to build the business so that everyone was forced to pay a “social tithing.” The people saw it, as it is actively PR. And personally Tuleyev has never been perceived as corrupt.”
Everyday corruption really was defeated. Gone showdown semi-criminal structures, tormenting the coal industry in the region — but primarily because in Kuzbass went large and reputable Russian company. Any populist actions there is always a reverse side. “When we in 2002 for the first time measured household corruption in the region, it is among the five most corrupt regions of Russia. But the dependence is such that the lower the level of corruption at the household level is higher in the business sector. It is the law that statistically there is a very well — says the President of Fund “INDEM” George Satarov. — Control over business is no different from extortion. For good reason his deputies were the problem. And since 2010 began to grow, and domestic corruption”.
“Entrepreneurs all during the reign of the former Governor were not allowed to develop. Tuleyev all processes were closed on herself. Without his direct instructions, direct sanctions, no one dared to do anything. But in order to do, also need the initiative” — says one of the regional leaders of “OPORA Russia”, the owner of yurgi Vladimir Ksenofontov. The result of the economic policies Aman Tuleev now visible to all: the budget revenues slightly recovered in 2017, and only thanks to the extremely good conditions on the coal market. The regional budget spends money on overhead costs, calling it social benefits. The development of the regional economy and create new jobs no provisions are practically non-existent.Among strangers, a stranger among his
“Call me in the ranks of the progressive opposition “protoreaster man,” and surrounded by the former Governor — enemy number one”, — says Yuri Skvortsov, former assistant to Aman Tuleev when he was Chairman of the Legislative Assembly. He is like no one else has the moral right to criticize the former Governor, for his principled positions to vote for Tuleyev he was on the personal order of Gennady Zyuganov expelled from the Communist party Central Committee.
“Tuleyev is a rather authoritarian man, but now time demands collective decisions and discussions. He always showed a rejection of any contradicting his own point of view, even constructive. In the human, a purely professional politics, he did not tolerate the slightest hint of any kind of independence, recalls a former associate. — But times have changed. Was the other work of the regions and the Federal center — now you have to work with the ministries to participate in various Federal programs. He zealously applied to the heads of municipalities, and even to his deputies, which showed some activity. He could hear people. Any criticism is perceived painfully in arms”.
“He was trying to make for themselves — this created a lack of efficiency in managerial decision-making. And, of course, the confidence of the people in the latter stages, especially in 2014, it was dry. As a result, we are mired in corruption scandals. Environment insolent and worked as if the last day came. And as a result, they simply framed. He didn’t force it all again to reverse. He made for the region very much, but the last years have undermined all the good”, — said Yuri Skvortsov.
Why the money was so awkward, to put it mildly, behaved during the tragedy? “His main mistake was that the decision to resign had to be taken in a timely manner. But he really wanted to stay. He thought he — and he alone — can lead the region — continues to comment on the sad events of that time Yury Skvortsov. The result of all this was incomplete information on what and there was the most monstrous speculation, which only exacerbated the emotional state of the people”.
It becomes clear why the region’s residents still remember the former Governor, often paying tribute to made. No, no one blames him for the tragedy “the Winter cherry”, but this trouble, according to Yury Skvortsov, “has divided life into “before” and “after”, broke many destinies, and we just want to learn to live again”.
To be continued