Moscow. 9 Feb. INTERFAX – Scientists of Institute of archaeology Academy of Sciences and their colleagues – historians, art historians, philologists, restorers and Museum workers – has completed a major two-year project exploring one of the oldest temples of pre-Mongol Rus’, the Church of the Annunciation in the Settlement in Novgorod, built in the XII century.
The temple will be the first archaeological site in Russia, which will museefication with the use of modern technology and will be available for tourists and all comers, said on Friday the Institute of archaeology RAS.
“Our country is still very rare: the majority of archaeological sites remain inaccessible. First significant experience in this area we received after the excavations in the Moscow Kremlin, where the decision was made to useefficiency finds” â€“ said the Director of the Institute of archaeology, Vice-President of the RAS Nikolai Makarov.
The process of museumification of the monument has already begun. Over the temple of the XIV century, built the glass roof, which left nezabyvaemymi design of the XII century. Inside the building, a heating system, there will be projectors and other visualization tools. In the temple you can see fragments of frescoes preserved in its place on the thrones, on the lower level of the hierarchal places on the lower parts of the walls of the altar.
Church of the Annunciation is located in the neighborhood of Novgorod, in the place which is also called the Rurik Settlement, as it is here in 862 came to rule, Prince Rurik. The settlement has long played the role of residence of the Novgorod princes. The first stone Church on this site was built by order of the Novgorod Prince Mstislav the Great, son of Vladimir Monomakh, in the year 1103, apparently, in honor of the birth of the son of Vsevolod, in baptism Gavriil. The Church was decorated with frescoes.
In 1342-1343 years on the orders of Grand Prince of Moscow Simeon the Proud old Church was destroyed and in its place was built a new one. The little Church of the XIV century, was rebuilt in the late XVIII century and during the Great Patriotic war were on the front line and was seriously damaged. After the war, the ruins were temporarily mothballed, and near the ruins of the excavations was made which formed the bases of walls of earlier buildings, but the temple 1103 of the year was not fully excavated.
During the study of the Church were found traces of very ancient Settlement, first Slavic settlement, then a town of the first Russian princes with notable Scandinavian presence, then the residence of the Novgorod princes. In particular, scientists have found under the temple ruins of furnaces and remains of wooden structures. In these early layers related to the X century, was found Assembly lead seal, Arab and European silver coins.
An amazing discovery was made in the study of building heaps from the walls of the temple. It turned out that in the construction of a new Church in the XIV century the Foundation of the ancient Church was filled with sand, containing numerous fragments of plaster and frescoes of the beginning of the XII century. Just managed to collect thousands of fragments of pre-Mongolian frescoes, including those with images of faces. Thus, critics were able to significantly expand their understanding of the ancient Russian style of temple paintings.
In addition, during the excavations there were discovered dozens of graffiti, including inscriptions about the death and burial of Prince Vsevolod mstislavovitch, who reigned in Novgorod in 1136 1117 years, and then was banished from the city and died in 1138, the year in Pskov. The events dedicated to three inscriptions in the altar, one “front” and a lengthy, written in very beautiful handwriting, the second very short and third that he was buried the day after death.
Scientists have also discovered several inscriptions in Glagolitic, the first Slavic alphabet, which the beginning of the XII century, has been used very rarely. One of the inscriptions containing the prayers is probably the largest known at the present moment Glagolitic inscription in Russia.