MOSCOW, 22 Nov â€“ RIA Novosti. Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe still has announced his resignation after the Parliament’s decision on his impeachment. Thus ended a 37-year reign is the oldest living state leaders.
The situation in Zimbabwe escalated on Wednesday, when it was reported that the military had taken control of the television station in the capital of Zimbabwe, Harare, and the residence of Mugabe. Sunday under house arrest Mugabe stripped of leadership posts in the party “Zimbabwe African national Union â€” Patriotic front” (ZANU-PF). After that, the party Central Committee called on Mugabe to resign as head of state until Monday afternoon, or against him will be initiated the procedure of impeachment.
However, the 93-year-old Mugabe could surprise Zimbabweans during a televised address to the nation on Sunday, he, contrary to all predictions and expectations, not a word is said about the resignation. On Tuesday, the Parliament of Zimbabwe took the decision to impeach Mugabe, giving him the day to resign. Then speaker of the Parliament of Zimbabwe, Jacob Mudenda read a letter Mugabe resignation from the post.
to download a videocopy the linkcode to the Dancing and jubilation: the reaction of Zimbabweans to the resignation of President Mugabe
Mugabe was born in 1924 near the current capital of Zimbabwe, Harare. Officially the state of Zimbabwe emerged in 1980 after gaining independence from Britain. Prior to this, 1924-1953 years in this area was British southern Rhodesia in the years 1953-1963 Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and from 1963 until independence is an unrecognized Rhodesia.
Education Mugabe received in Catholic school and from 18 to 25 years as a teacher. He lived for a time in the South African Union (the dominion that existed prior to 1961), where he studied in College, and Ghana. Back home, Mugabe worked as a Secretary for public relations in the office of the National democratic party of Rhodesia, which after a year was banned and then reregistered under a different name â€“ the Union of the African people of Zimbabwe (ZAPU).
In 1963, Mugabe left ZAPU and formed their own political Union â€” the Zimbabwe African national Union (ZANU). When the activities of all political parties in the country was banned, Mugabe along with the leaders of other unions were arrested and held in prison for 10 years â€” from 1964 to 1974. After his release, Mugabe has once again topped ZANU, entered into an Alliance with ZAPU.
Since 1965, the leadership of the two parties carried out violent actions against the people of Rhodesia and of the government troops, as claimed by the then government, the soldiers of ZAPU and ZANU attacked the farms of white settlers, and border village.
Permanent leader and “redistribution”
In the late 1970-ies began negotiations to end the guerrilla war in Rhodesia and the search for a political solution. In mid-1979, elections, and became Prime Minister Bishop Abel Muzorewa, the state became known as Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. In 1980, Britain granted independence to the African country, it became known as Zimbabwe, and to power on the results of the General elections came Mugabe. 31 Dec 1987, he became President by changing the Constitution and abolishing the post of Prime Minister. He then repeatedly re-elected to the presidency.
In the late 1990s, Mugabe’s popularity started to decline due to economic problems and high-profile political scandals. Mugabe was accused of aspiration in whatever began to stay in power. In 2000 Mugabe to strengthen their position, and urged to take agricultural lands of white farmers and transfer them do not own land to black farmers or to veterans of the war for independence.
In 2002, Mugabe demanded that several thousand white farmers to leave the country under threat of imprisonment. The international monetary Fund in response to these actions has suspended financial support to Zimbabwe, the European Union imposed sanctions against the Mugabe government. The consequences of the “black redistribution” was the sharp drop of production in industry, especially related to processing of agricultural products and mineral raw materials. Decreased foreign investment, loans and donor aid. The EU started talking about the resignation of Mugabe and democratization of the political process in Zimbabwe.
One hundred trillion Zimbabwean dollars
Together with the “black redistribution” the government of Mugabe introduced a law according to which foreign companies in the country should be controlled by black citizens that has hit investment flows and the economy of Zimbabwe. In 2007, according to a report by the International crisis group, 10 million of the 12 million population of Zimbabwe lived below the poverty line, three million people fled to neighboring countries. Shortages of fuel, food and foreign currency has led to the fact that the unemployment rate reached 80%. Failure ended the attempt of Mugabe to beat hyperinflation by freezing prices. One us dollar was worth 25 million Zimbabwean dollars.
By the beginning of 2008 inflation in Zimbabwe has reached one hundred thousand percent, and by mid-year to 4 million percent. GDP decreased, while external debt increased. In January 2009, inflation exceeded 300 million percent, the appeal was introduced the banknote 100 trillion Zimbabwean dollars, and soon after the national currency was taken out of circulation, the government was allowed to use any foreign currency. Dollarization of the economy stopped the hyperinflation, in 2010 and 2011 were recorded GDP growth of 9% in 2012 to 5.5%.
The People Of Zimbabwe. Archive photo
The President and the opposition
In 2008 it was signed an agreement on the division of powers between the government and the opposition, President Mugabe, left, and Prime Minister became the opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai. In the same year, Mugabe decided to go to the presidency for the sixth time. The opposition accused Mugabe’s intention to falsify the election results.
In 2013, Zimbabwe adopted a new Constitution under which the President may not serve more than two five-year consecutive terms. Winning the election that year, Mugabe could stay in power for at least five years. The opposition and representatives of the world community again accused the country’s leadership of rigging the vote.
Mugabe and Europe
In 2008, the European Union, Mugabe called the dictator. Former post of the EU high representative for common and foreign policy Javier Solana said the time has come to put pressure on Mugabe and force him to resign as President of Zimbabwe.
In April 2014, Mugabe boycotted the summit of the European Union and African countries. Zimbabwe urged other members of the African Union to follow suit, stating that the EU “disparagingly refers to Africa”. In the local media as the true causes of the actively discussed the denial of Schengen visa to the spouse of the President, as well as the delay in sending the invitation to Mugabe.
Within the country the personality of Mugabe strongly extolled. He always erected monuments in his honor was even renamed located in Zimbabwe’s capital international airport. As reported by local news portal Daily News, the procedure of renaming the country’s largest airport the government has allocated half a million dollars, of which 200 thousand was spent on the ceremony.
Birthday in a million
Widely walked himself to the Zimbabwean President. For example, in 2015, the celebration of his birthday at a cost of one million dollars. The celebrations were going on for a week, for their meeting was the Golf resort “elephant hills” Victoria falls. “There will be music, dancing and elephant meat on the menu for about 20 thousand people”, â€” said the Guardian. For comparison, incomes of the state budget in 2013 amounted to slightly less than three million dollars.
Tens of thousands of people were invited to the birthday of the Zimbabwean leader last year. The event took place in the province of Masvingo in the area of the stone ruins of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, which in the country are considered sacred ancestors. Mugabe accompanied by wife grace and children released into the air 92 balloon, and then sat in a place of honor to see an organized presentation that consisted of poetry reading, songs and speeches of the supporters.
For about 50 thousand guests had cooked the meal. In particular, it was presented a huge cake that resembles the ancient ruins of Great Zimbabwe. The celebration was attended by foreign diplomats, government officials, children from local schools and tens of thousands of pilgrims who came to the festival from different regions of the country. Scale party that cost more than 800 thousand dollars of public funds.
The authorities, however, argue that it’s worth it. “Money is not the issue. It is impossible to assess the contribution of President Mugabe in the history and development of the country. All of this is worth more than money”, â€” said the representative of the ruling party Popuri Togarepi.
Personal life and health
In August 1996, Mugabe married his Secretary, grace, who is forty years younger than him. She became the second wife of the President, the first died in 1992.
Over time grace Mugabe has managed to become an influential figure in the political life of Zimbabwe. In December 2014, she occupied one of key posts in the ruling party. According to representatives of the opposition of the country in recent years grace Mugabe has effectively taken the leadership in Zimbabwe instead of the spouse.
However, despite growing political influence, grace Mugabe is very unpopular among the people. Reproach her, in particular, are foreign trips for shopping expensive things, while the economy is experiencing great difficulties.
She is involved in scandals. In August, the South African authorities brought against grace Mugabe affair. To be beaten by Zimbabwean first lady complained 20-year-old model. According to her, she was in the company of the sons of Mugabe in one of the hotels of Johannesburg, when grace beat her with the cord from the extension cord. However, the wife of Zimbabwe’s President managed to leave South Africa, using diplomatic immunity.
The first lady of Zimbabwe, grace Mugabe and Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa in Harare
With the filing of Wikileaks has information that in 2007 Mugabe had cancer of the larynx, the local Newspapers put forward the version about prostate cancer and regular courses of treatment in an Oncology clinic in Singapore, but official confirmation of this information is not received. Mugabe denies periodically information about their illness, stating that he is in great form, and travels to Singapore for the development of bilateral ties.
Impeachment and resignation
On Tuesday, Mugabe joined the heads of state, who resigned as a result of impeachment. Mugabe himself did not seem to believe it will ever happen. Despite his advanced age, he repeatedly said he was not going to retire from politics: in December 2014, Mugabe was re-elected to the presidency of ZANU-PF, thus becoming one of the candidates for the presidential elections 2018. To bargain for his post, he was held under house arrest, but, as shown by the events of recent days, to no avail.