Women in politics are sometimes accused of deliberately exploiting her femininity to get ahead in a male-dominated world.
Frances Perkins, but in an unusual way: she’s trying to remind men of their mothers.
She dressed in a plain, three-pointed, and they refined the way they are traded, is based on careful observation of what seemed to be the most persuade effectively, to accept the men, their ideas.
Perhaps it is no coincidence that these ideas are reasonably described in a manner, such as maternal or parental.
Each parents shield part want their children to serious harm, and Perkins believed that governments should do the same for their citizens.
It was President Franklin D Roosevelt’s Secretary of labor in 1933.
The Great Depression ravaged America. A third of workers were unemployed. Those with jobs saw wages fall.
Perkins drove through the changes, which became known as the New Deal, including minimum wage, social benefits for the unemployed and pensions for the elderly.
Historians will tell you, it was not invented by Frances Perkins, the social state. It was Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of the German Empire, half a century earlier. Ultimate Responsibility
But it was largely during Frances Perkins era, the various welfare States have their recognizable modern Form in the developed world
Details differ from place to place, from measure to measure, and time-to-time.
But the same basic idea of connections of each of the social state: that the ultimate responsibility for the should not be set at the people starving on the street, not with the family or charity, or private insurance, but with the government.
The inequality that widened in many countries during the 1980s and 1990s, may be even more.
In the past, new and better jobs such coming to replace that lost, but maybe the artificial intelligence will be capable of these new tasks. Universal basic income?
If, in the future, human labor will be less needed, companies can request sewn, reinventing ourselves and the welfare state.
Not all economists think that the value of worrying about the only. But those that do, are the revival of an idea of a universal basic income goes back to Thomas Morus and his 1516 book, utopia.
It seems utopian in the sense of fantastic, unrealistic. We could imagine a world in which everyone receives a regular cash handout, enough for your basic needs, no questions asked?
Some evidence suggests, it is worth considering.
In the 1970s, the idea was tested in a Canadian town called Dauphin.
For years, thousands of residents cheques every month. And it turns out that the warranty people had an income of interesting effects.
Fewer young people leave school. Fewer people were hospitalized with mental health problems. Hardly anyone was working. New studies are underway to see if the same happens elsewhere.
Will help in Finland, basic income study, the unemployed?
Ontario to try to give the poor a basic income
It would, of course, enormously expensive. You say you gave every American adult, let’s say $12,000 (Â£9,000 per year. The cost is 70% of the entire Federal budget. It seems incredibly radical.
But then, incredibly radical things do sometimes happen, and quickly.
In the 1920s, not a single U.S. government offered to pension schemes. Of 1935, Frances Perkins she rolled had about the nation.
Tim Harford, the Financial Times Undercover Economist column writes. 50 things the Modern economy, with the broadcast on the BBC World Service. You can find more information about the program, sources and listen online or subscribe to the podcast program.