The Apostle and Evangelist Luke
Luke, the companion of the Apostle Paul, author of one of the four canonical Gospels and the book of Acts was a physician (Col. 4:1) and, according to tradition, the first iconographer.
The Apostle Paul mentions in the Epistles to Philemon (FLM. 24), to Timothy (2 Tim. 4:10) and Colossians (Col. 4:14), but in the gospel texts no biographical information about him there.
According to legend, he was born in Syrian Antioch them, enlightened in the Greek Diaspora. Some scientists believe that, before entering into the community of disciples of Jesus, he was a Jewish proselyte – so he knew the Jewish customs. When and how he turned to Christ — is unknown, but according to Church tradition, he was among the 70 disciples were sent to the first sermon during the earthly life of the Savior. Then accompanied the Apostle Paul on his second and all subsequent missionary journeys, and after his martyrdom in Rome around preaching ahiu, Libya, Egypt and the Thebaid, and about 82 years, one month to 69 years, during the persecution of Emperor Domitian was hanged in Achaia — in the absence of a cross on an olive tree. His body was buried in Thebes, and in the second half of the IV century transferred to Constantinople.
The Apostle Luke as the author of the gospel is testified by ancient Christian writers — Irenaeus of Lyons, Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Tertullian. In the early Church the authenticity of his gospel is generally not questioned. But the time of its creation reliably install failed: the tradition relates the creation of the book to the 60-th years of the first century, but many modern researchers believe more probable the Dating 70 — 80 years.
The gospel of Luke was written for Christians from the Gentiles, and his main idea is that Christ is the Redeemer of the human race, and His Gospel is for all peoples.
The oldest found manuscripts of the gospel of Luke dates from the first half of the III century and represents a five papyrus fragments of the text, and the whole Greek original contained in the Sinai and Vatican codices (IV century).
Reformation day is a holiday to commemorate the founding of the Evangelical Church
October 31 is the day of Foundation of the Evangelical Church. On this day in 1517, the papal doctor of theology, Professor at Wittenberg University, monk-Augustine Martin Luther nailed to the door of the parish Church of Wittenberg his famous “95 theses” which began the wider discussion about the effectiveness of indulgences, led to the emergence of Protestantism and the schism of the Western Church for Evangelical and Catholic. In some Lutheran churches on October 31 called the Day of Luther’s theses.
Luther was concerned about the eternal Christian question that is still asked John the Baptist: “What we need to do to be saved?”(LK. 3: 10, 12, 14). He felt that the understanding of salvation in his modern Catholic scholasticism there is something wrong, fake. Quoting the words which Jesus Christ began His Ministry — “Repent, for the Kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 4:17), Luther raised the question: what does the call to repentance for us Christians, now, in 1517?
Repentance has two sides: the external — the sacraments, including confession of sins to the priest who let them go, and the internal process taking place in the heart of the Christian. Luther never doubted that the sacrament of penance, but he noticed that at the time when Christ spoke these words, the Christian Church, and, therefore, the ordinances have not been, and could He have in mind only internal repentance, which, if it is sincere and true, necessarily induces a person to good deeds. These good works Luther several calls “the absolute mortification of the flesh”.
Hence his conclusion: to be saved, a Christian no external things are not needed, he needs repentance.
Whenever a person invades “his fleshly mind” in the realm of the divine, there is a misunderstanding, since, as the Scripture says, “God is not mocked”, suffers from a lack of understanding of the Truth, only the man himself. The practice of indulgences, around which the polemics, was nothing short of attempt to resolve with human logic, questions of Church building.
The pious practice of epitemy often required penitents to make a pilgrimage to a particular Holy place, during which people were praying, fasting and giving charity. And when Pope Leo X, being guided by human logic, unleashed the so-called “Holy war”, the best form of pilgrimage was the participation in the Crusades, which promised his party’s full or substantial remission of sins.
However, not all could afford to drop everything and go to Palestine. Then dad began to resolve not to participate in the campaigns individually, but to equip the volunteer is performing thus penance “otmolit” not only our sins but the sins of their loved ones, including the dead according to the teachings of the Catholic Church residing in purgatory.
October 18, 1517, Pope Leo X issued a bull for the remission of sins, and the sale of indulgences in order to “facilitate the construction of the temple of St. Peter and the salvation of the souls of the Christian world”. In response, Luther published his “Theses”, and two years later publicly expressed doubts about the righteousness and infallibility of the papacy. After this, Pope Leo X had betrayed him anathema, and Luther publicly burnt in the courtyard of Wittenberg University’s papal bull of excommunication from his Church and in the address “To the Christian nobility of the German nation” declared that the struggle against papal dominance is a matter of the entire German nation, and began to translate the Bible into German.
He expressed the revolutionary idea that everyone can interpret the Scripture, guided by personal religious experience, and the priests are not intermediaries between God and man, they merely need to guide the flock and to be an example of true Christians. “Man saves a soul, not by the Church, but through faith,” wrote Luther. He did not reject the heritage of the Church, but encouraged to rethink the value of everything that makes a Christian.
Thanks to the printing press his ideas became available to a huge number of people and developing a thesis Luther on the ability of each to interpret the word of God, many have become preachers and founded his own Church called Protestant. And he founded the Lutheran Church today is not the biggest of them.