NASA opened up a whole bunch of stars-“pumpkins” for Halloween

MOSCOW, October 28 – RIA Novosti. Orbital Observatory “Kepler” has obtained pictures of almost two dozen unusual “flattened” stars, similar in shape to pumpkin because of the very high speed of rotation and emit thousands of times more x-rays than the Sun, according to the space flight Center of NASA Goddard.

“These 18 stars make one revolution around its axis in just a few days, whereas the Sun spends about one month. Ultra-fast rotation speed enhances the activity in the subsoil, accelerated the appearance and fading of sunspots and associated flares on the surface of these stars, literally forcing them to go into “overload”, says Stephen Howell (Steven Howell) from space flight Center named Ames in Moffett field (USA).

As Howell says, the scientific team of the Observatory is interested in this “pumpkin” stars, as they call them, even during the first stage of “Kepler”, when he had watched almost 150 thousands of stars, located in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra.

Almost continuous observation of these luminaries for four incomplete years have uncovered a large strange behavior of some of them, whose brightness fluctuated about 100 times faster than appearing and disappearing sunspots.

Fast frequency of appearance and disappearance of spots and flares on these stars pointed to the fact that they rotate very fast, despite its relatively modest size and fairly old age. This surprised astronomers, and they studied in detail all 18 stars, which showed a similar behavior with a different telescope NASA, “swift,” working in the x-ray band and optical Hale telescope in the Palomar Observatory in California.

These observations showed that these stars produce huge amounts of x-rays hundreds of times more than the Sun emits during bursts of activity, and a thousand times more than in times of “calm” in our luminary. Their speed was also very high – they make one revolution in just 2-3 days, and the fastest stars are KSw38, KSw57 and KSw78 – made one revolution around itself in less than a day.

This high speed means that these stars are like balls, and a kind of “pumpkin” from plasma, tapered under the action of centrifugal forces. The appearance of these “pumpkins” will constantly change due to the high degree of activity of their bowels, that only makes them similar to the way glow Halloween pumpkin, inside which was inserted a candle.

How could such luminaries? According to astronomers, based on the unusual properties of these stars-“pumpkins”, they could be born in the merger of binary stars located very close to each other.

When one of these luminaries exhausts its reserves “star fuel”, it turns into a red giant, swelled to huge sizes and absorbing second star. Dying and the young star merge, and in their place arises a new light, similar in its properties to the stars, found “Kepler”. On the possible existence of such objects, astronomers have begun to say in the 70 years of the last century, but only now scientists have been able to find them with the help of “Kepler” and “swift”.