The specific value
Swiss consulting firm Henley & Partners, which deals with citizenship issues and visa, has published its first report devoted to high-quality parties to the possession of a passport of a particular country. In the study (there RBC), entitled “citizenship of the world Index” (Index of Quality of Nationality, QNI), the experts conducted an analysis of foreign policy, economic and social factors, on the basis of which built a passport according to the degree of General attractiveness.
The concept study is based on the fact that the attractiveness of citizenship is determined by its intrinsic value (the quality of life within the country) and external value (as such citizenship is advantageous from the point of view of travelling, visiting other countries utilize their rights abroad). To assess the intrinsic value of the passport are used the size of the economy (GDP according to the IMF or the world Bank), index of human development (according to UN) and internal stability (based on the Global peace index, GPI). The external value of the passport is determined by the possibility of visa-free residence and employment in other countries, visa-free travel, and takes into account not just the number of available countries, but also their relative quality. For example, citizens of Russia without a visa to live in four countries — Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and citizens of the Federated States of Micronesia — in the three countries (Marshall Islands, Palau and United States). Methodology by Henley & Partners value Micronesian passport is higher than that of Russia because the US is superior Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan combined economic power, the US has higher levels of human development.
“External value of citizenship shows the extent to which holders of such passports can enjoy all the pleasures of globalization, the study notes. — In relation to intrinsic value: the more opportunities the state provides to its citizens in matters of wealth, security, education, health and stability, the higher figure”.
Only experts Henley & Partners has analyzed 161 citizenship in the world. Some countries have been excluded from the list for lack of data: for example, the Vatican, North Korea, Somalia and South Sudan. On the contrary, the passport of non-citizens of Latvia were taken into account when making the rating, since this status can be inherited, although in the context of international law, “the speech, certainly, goes to the status of stateless persons”.
First place with a score of 83.1 in ranking is Germany. Followed with 83 points goes to Denmark, and then Finland (82 points). With a few exceptions, the entire table top — 27 seats — is States of the European Union.
In fourth place is Norway, which is part of the Schengen area but is not a member of the EU, 12th place is a small Principality of Liechtenstein, are also not formally included in the European Union. 29-e a place (58.3 points) took Croatia, behind from non-European countries only the United States (63.5 points). “Non-citizens” of Latvia share the 109-th place with Guinea-Bissau and Namibia (26.2 points).
In General, countries are divided into four categories. “Low quality” of citizenship means that the country scored from zero to 20 points. “Average” — up to 35 points, “high quality” — up to 50 points, and “very high quality” — more than 50 points. The average for the world amounted to 38.7 points and the median is only of 30.9.
The rating QNI shows the situation as of may 2016, but experts Henley & partners review the indicators for the period from 2011 to 2015, building a certain momentum. Over the last year its position in the ranking of the most strongly fortified Bulgaria and Romania (adding approximately 10 points each), the strongest of all weakened the attractiveness of the passport of Ukraine by 2.2 points to 30.2.
A collector of land
Russia with a score of 37.4 parts of the 60-th place with China and Qatar, which puts it in the category of countries with “high quality” of citizenship. Over the past year, the index increased by 0.6 points. Among CIS countries Russia is the only member of this category, all the others have “average quality”, up to Turkmenistan from 23.4 points.
From the former USSR countries (except Baltic countries) the greatest freedom of movement is granted to citizens of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and Kazakhstan the least — the inhabitants of the Transcaucasian and Central Asian republics. If travel within the whole region with rare exceptions, freely, the rules of resettlement and work are very different. The most liberal regime the drafters of the rating was recorded in Georgia, the full ban in Turkmenistan. Other CIS countries have quotas for labour and require to obtain a work permit.
The Treaty establishing the EEU, which came into force in January 2015, simplified the hiring of workers from the countries-members of the Union, but while Russia has tightened immigration requirements as a whole. Partly because of this, according to the compilers of the rating, considerably weakened the position of Ukraine, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
On the other hand, the Association agreement of EU with Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova made a positive contribution in the position of these countries in the ranking. So, the number of points from Moldova has increased over the year the strongest of the countries in the region (by 4.1 points to 32.7 points, 77th place in the world), and Georgia — 0.9 points to 27.8 points (103rd place). For this reason, the fall of Ukraine in the list was not as strong, despite the economic difficulties and military conflict.
In General, the authors of the index QNI, the Russians have the greatest freedom of movement from all countries of the former USSR (except the three Baltic States). Those countries in the region that do not participate in the Eurasian integration on the example of Moscow, on the contrary, weakened.