Trillions of minute
The anti-terrorism package of bills on 7 April 2016 in the state Duma introduced Deputy Irina Yarovaya and Senator Viktor Ozerov. According to their proposals, telecoms operators and Internet service providers over three years will have to store and to provide the authorities with information about the committed subscribers of the calls and sent the messages and their contents. May 13, the state Duma adopted the “anti-terrorism package” in first reading.
The amount of data that need to be stored, will be 157,5 exabytes (1 EB is equal to 1 billion GB), the report said the design Institute “giprosvjaz”, subsidiary of “Rostelecom” (a copy of the report is at the disposal of RBC). According to the authors of the report, this is 100 thousand times more amount of data about the facts of rendering of services, which operators now store.
Experts “Giprosvyaz” presented the calculations at the meeting of the Interim Commission of the Federation Council on development of information society on Monday, may 16. In their view, if the amendments come into force, after three years the volume of stored information operators will reach 2.8 trillion minutes of phone calls (1,35 exabytes), 156 exabytes of information on the Internet and 0.12 petabytes (1 Pb is 1 million GB) of message subscribers. In addition, another 1.5 petabytes will be information about the facts of rendering of services.
This volume of data requires 30,6 thousand racks in data centers (DPC) is more than the power of any of the world’s largest data center, the report said.
First to record and store information on disks, possibly long-term storage on tape media, experts say. But hard drives are not produced in Russia, said at a meeting of the Commission Vice-President and technical Director Mail.Ru Group Vladimir Gabrielyan. Therefore, the costs of industry “to Fund foreign manufacturers of the equipment”, he said. Agree the Director of Fund of assistance to development of the Internet, Mikhail Medrish: “the cost of tens of billions of dollars — it will be investment in the markets of China, Taiwan, Singapore.”
“The collapse of the entire industry”
“For the whole story is the economy, and the numbers are dramatic,” he said at a meeting of the Deputy head of the Ministry of communications Dmitry Alkhazov. According to him, the cost equal to one third of annual budget of Russia (in the same amount to 5.2 trillion rubles — estimated the costs of operators in a data storage expert working group under the government), “the industry not to survive”.
Agreed the Internet Ombudsman Dmitry Marinichev: to provide the necessary infrastructure to be economically viable, so the operators and organizers of information distribution” on the Internet will not be able to fulfill the law — this will cause the withdrawals and the collapse of the entire industry,” he passed through a representative. According to Marinicheva, the bill in its current form was “premature”.
The proposed amendments will not work, if you do not stipulate the liability of operators for non-compliance, and, therefore, need extra bills, said Deputy head of Roskomnadzor Oleg Ivanov. But to control, for example, completeness of data storage and that is not “jammed” whether the operator certain information, it is practically impossible, he said.
Even if the content of conversations and messages of the operators ‘ subscribers and Internet-users to store, analyze this dataset would be difficult, said the representative of the legal Department of “Yandex” Anastasia Adilova. “How long will it take the search in this database? It may take time, which did not relate to the objectives which colleagues from law enforcement agencies pursue,” said she.
At the same time on the network more and more encrypted traffic, to investigate which would be impossible, said the Director of the Department of regulatory risks, MTS Andrey REGO. Alhazov from the Ministry of communications responded that the FSB is better known as the operative-search activities, so we should not wonder whether law enforcement authorities to analyze the amount of data and decode it.
The operators predicted and contradictions in the legislation in case of adoption of the amendments. Now, for example, operators do not have the right to record telephone conversations without a court order, but the proposed legislation assumes that calls will be recorded before the court decision. Thus, a conflict arises between two norms of the law, the Director for relations with legislative and Executive branch of “Megaphone” Dmitry Petrov.
Participants worried, for the security of the data to be stored. Under threat is the mystery of communications, said Petrov of “MegaFon”. According to him, today “the media let you see how easily hacked the accounts of Telegram, a cloud-based data stores, etc. When that information will be on the server, it will be easier to obtain than with the device of man.” On the protection of the secrecy of communication concerned and the Director for work with state bodies “VimpelCom” (brand “Beeline”) Sergey Malyanov: protection of stored data is also costly, and not all operators have the appropriate resources. Security data Internet companies said Gabrielyan from Mail.Ru Group: websites and so are often faced with hacker attacks, “at some point can form leaks is very difficult and expensive to control,” he said.
Representatives of the operators “big three” are reminded that their costs of storing this volume of data will exceed the annual revenue. It is technically possible says Malyanov: “For what? Stop the company to make this system? Then there will be nothing to collect”. Earlier “VympelCom” estimated costs of execution of the bill of $31 billion in three years, “the Megaphone” — in $20.8 billion.
Earlier expert working group “Communication and information technology under the government of Russia proposed to abandon the amendments, because they are not feasible. Participants in the Commission of the Federation Council made a less radical proposal. In the report “giprosvjaz” provides examples of international practices: among the possible requirements for operators — storing the metadata about the services (location information, start time and duration of calls), the co-financing of expenses from the state, installation of equipment on the network to intercept the traffic. Thus in world practice there are examples where operators were obliged to store the contents of calls and messages, the authors of the report.
According to Alhanova, you need to discuss what storage volumes will be Golden mean” for operators and Internet companies. To reduce the amount of information stored previously proposed, and the government in response to the bill. The Commission in the Federation Council decided to develop amendments to the bill with a proposal to adjust the timing and the amount of data storage.