Article 282, which is now massively judge the users of social networks existed in the Russian criminal code always. However, doing it for a long time not excited, especially as massively as in 2017-2018. One of the reasons that led to this situation was the adoption of the law “On countering extremist activities”. It was submitted to the state Duma in 2002 and adopted with lightning speed, in just three weeks, despite the hundreds of amendments disputes and violent parliamentarians. Someone of the deputies had already anticipated criminal charges for the scientific study of fascism and the persecution for speaking out. Someone, on the contrary, urged to do the day of the adoption of anti-extremist law the national holiday. Someone was in a hurry to break. The transcript of those meetings can be found on the website of the System of ensuring legislative activity. “Ribbon.ru” prepared excerpts from her.
On 23 may 2002 on the Kiev highway explosion: Muscovite Tatyana Sapunova saw on the side of the plate with anti-Semitic slogan and decided to pull it out of the ground, but the sign was booby-trapped. A woman survived. After that throughout Russia there are other posters with dummy bombs with real explosives. Responsibility in some cases laid on the skinheads. Shortly after the first explosion in the state Duma was introduced the bill “On countering extremist activities”. He had to toughen the penalties for already existing in the criminal code article 282 and to define the notion “extremist community”.Reading first, June 6, 2002
Presiding Gennady Seleznev, speaker of the state Duma of the third convocation
Andrei Klimov, “Regions of Russia (Union of independent deputies)”:
We are already talking two years here in this chamber about the necessity to fight extremism. That these bills were prepared, knew the whole country, not only the deaf hear. Therefore, opinion, I think, all is formed. And I would ask now for the inclusion in the agenda to vote, and all discussion to leave the discussion.
He objected, causing a dispute. Someone said that the drafts were received on hands the day before the vote, someone- that they walked through the corridors of the state Duma eight years
Alexander kitten, a representative of the President:
Here completely wrong there were thoughts that the law may be applied in suppressing social protests by teachers, miners and so on. Dear deputies, let us carefully read the bill! You cannot prevent or eliminate the movement, the protests by teachers, miners and so on and so forth.
Pavel Krasheninnikov, Chairman of state Duma Committee on legislation, the faction “Union of right forces”:
I don’t know whether you know or not, but immediately after the Second world war almost all European countries have adopted legislation anti-extremist, anti-fascist. And I think that the experts can confirm that almost all countries have very harsh penalties, for example, for the purchase of the book Hitler’s Mein Kampf. For example, in Europe, it is possible to obtain a period or undergo a sufficiently large monetary penalty to a fine.
So we did it, we thought, if we have immunity, because our country lost the most in the Second world war, suffered most from fascism. And it seemed to us that this problem does not concern us. Extremism, in principle, existed, but it existed, as a rule, at the household level. And if he went beyond the household level, the state coped with it in different ways, and not always in ways that are in line with legislation.
Viktor Zorkaltsev, the Committee on public organizations, the Communist party:
Leviathan brings already a legislative basis for their activities against civil society. <…> Under this definition (extremism — approx. “”) you can customize everything: for example, organized a speech of doctors, teachers, miners demanding payment of back salary — they are emotional; pensioners demanding payment of a legitimate, earned pensions — there is also emotions overflowing; people freezing in their homes due to disconnection in the winter electricity; depositors with the requirements for the restoration of their property rights infringed by the failure of existing laws, I want to stress.
Irina Khakamada, Duma Deputy speaker
This law is not for a democratic society, and for society, fearing the development of civil initiatives, the policy is not directed at the interaction of the main forces of the country, and in their separation and opposition… (Microphone turned off)
Presiding: Victor Ilyich, half a minute. Finish up.
Zorkaltsev: This law is directed on repayment of civic activity, reduction of protective functions of citizens to the repayment of the reaction that arise for people in connection with the adoption, say, of the Labour code, land law, housing reform, inflation, impoverishment of the people.
And the last one. Not this law, we need to do! Should expedite the review of laws on citizens, the prohibition of propaganda of fascism in the Russian Federation on legal guarantees of opposition activities, meetings… Make a motion to remove the bill from consideration. (Applause)
<Soon the questions begin. Some MPs are still not clear, what is extremism>
Alevtina Aparina, a Communist party: Alexander, a question for you, and if riot police, in the case where the beating of citizens of Russia to recognize the extremists?
Presiding Judge: Thank You. Please, Mr Zubkov.
<Kitten answers the question, what is the extremism>
From the audience: (inaudible.)
Kitten: Well, if “your whole life consists of terrorism, seizure of power, beatings of Jews”, then, excuse me, it’s your life, but not the country.
In this situation, you can read the Federal law “On assemblies, rallies, demonstrations, processions and picketing”, to watch carefully legislation of the Russian Federation. We are not talking about the suppression of extremism. I don’t know who is and who is behind that beat, but it is possible that there was an unsanctioned rally, which is law enforcement, to put it mildly, was finished. Who is right and who is wrong, let the law enforcement agencies.
Nikolai Kolomeitsev of the Communist party: for example, the Israeli Knesset identified sixty-five words and terms that are prohibited to apply. Do you have such a list? It is necessary that people, citizens who knew him.
Yuri Nikiforenko, a Communist party: please Tell me why the law is absolutely not provided for the liability of public authorities for their extremist activities to society? Is it 90 years were not filled with state extremism in the person of Yeltsin and his entourage? The story known. Why are you trying in the law to protect officials, this mode and, in fact, create an iron curtain between the company and the government? That is the danger of your law. Please explain your true purpose. Because these ideas were sounded by Zhirinovsky and Fedulov, and they… (Microphone turned off.)
Kitten: <…> An official, whether the President or anyone, allow extremist actions and extremist statements, it is subject to this law.
Here was already repeatedly sounded: and why there Basayev, Khattab’s not attracted to and so on?.. Basayev and Khattab (well, Khattab does not attract, the Lord his God drew) will organize under the Criminal code. But if there was a law on counteraction to extremism… <…>, Wahhabism as a religious movement would have been prohibited before the appearance of Basayev, Khattab and the like.
Faith Lekarev’s, SPS: I Have a question to Alexander Zubkov. I must say that I will vote for this law, although, in my opinion, it is declarative, but I liked it. <Asks the question of whether to recognize the extremism of human trafficking. Kitten says that you can bring>
(After the break)
The representative of the Communist party Valentin Romanov worried about the fate of the party: on the bill from members of an extremist should “promptly” to dissociate themselves, and the Communist fears of politicians-provocateurs. He also speaks about the threat to freedom of speech and freedom of thought, and later the Deputy Vadim Bulavinov of Deputy group “people’s Deputy” will say that he was pleased that the Communist party so strongly defends democratic values. “I think that if thirty years ago it would have been the same then there would have any Belavezha agreement, nothing else,” he says when his turn comes. The question of its abstract — is it possible that the law was not a club and shield for people
Presiding: <…> Accepted. Please, who will speak on “Unity”? Burataeva turn on the microphone.
Buratayeva: recently, children from Kalmykia, who came to Moscow for the competition, were beaten directly near a subway by skinheads. Soon the street would be dangerous to go out. We support this bill and believe that all who vote against it, would just be ashamed to look their constituents in the face.
Valentin Romanov, the Communist party: <…> No one is always right is not given. And those who now, not thinking, not thinking, not analyzing, rushing to the buttons, think, good gentlemen, that the rocker has two arms. Second. In all honesty I will say that for a penny I don’t believe in fear before the skinheads.
says faction will not support the bill in this form it is unacceptable
Presiding Judge: Thank You, Valentin Stepanovich. Only you would be quiet, it is very well audible. From the faction “Fatherland — All Russia” — Kovalev Nikolay Dmitrievich. Yes, from the rostrum. Turn on the microphone.
Nikolay Kovalev: <…> You know, generally speaking, I’m attracted to in this bill? Still, the tip of it aimed primarily at preventing extremist activity.
The presiding officer: I apologize to the faction of the liberal democratic party. Who from the LDPR faction? Please Deputy Finko. Turn on the microphone.
Oleg Finko, the liberal democratic party: I want to remind all honest society famous article 58. 58-I was a terrible article, in which a huge number of people and went away, and shot, and removed. Now wouldn’t this our law a continuation of the 58th article. Because (please note) miners spontaneously block the railway — who will drive? Disperse the Communist party and the acceleration of trade unions. Further, the intelligentsia will gather on Pushkin square to figure out their relationship — who will drive? Extremists from the “Apple” will disperse. Further, the rally against the Governor in Nizhny Novgorod collect — who will disperse? The liberal democratic party.
Further, says the law is needed, but it needs a big rework
Denisov from “agro-industrial Deputy group”
Dear members of Parliament, even the discussion itself suggests that this law is directed against us all and against thousands of public associations, which already exist in the country. <…> Let’s look at the text. I don’t think I abused the authors of their intelligence in the following definitions. “Extremist materials, — read intended for public disclosure documents”. That is, we are again driven to the kitchen, under a blanket or anywhere to whisper, because not even published, but only “intended”!
Acts as the representative of the faction “people’s Deputy”
Vadim Bulavinov, “MP”: <…> not, of course, I remember a phrase from the legendary film “Beware of the car”: “You posodyut. And you do not steal!” <…> So no need to compromise — and no one will fall under the purview of the law!
Alexander Fedulov, “Regions of Russia (Union of independent deputies)”: Dear colleagues, I am an independent member belong to any one faction, merger and therefore will Express the true will of Russians. You will represent only a part of them.
Today when extremism has taken on a comprehensive scale, the adoption of the first reading of this draft law is really a holiday because extremism can ruin a future in Russia.
Repeat the last word: today, if you take the law, it is necessary to declare a national holiday. Thank you.
<Are a few more people, and give the word to the Minister of justice Yuri Chaika, he said that the threat to the stability of the country by extremists is a fact, and that only the blind do not see>
Yuri Chaika, Minister of justice of Russia: <…> Then there were talks about the fear that adoption of this law will be violated human rights. I want to tell you that the bill meets all the international legal norms and principles, in particular, in the Venetian Council of Europe recommendations, in particular the European Commission for democracy through law.
Asked to vote for the bills. Soon the deputies do pass vote
The results of the vote. Voted for 271 persons 60.2 per cent Voted against 141 persons or 31.3% Abstained 1 person 0,2% Vote of 413 persons voted 37 people Result: accepted
Almost the same result the second bill that makes changes to other legal acts in connection with the anti-extremist law.Two weeks later. June 20, 2002. Reading the second.
Krasheninnikov says that it received more than a hundred amendments. “If anyone managed to see”
Sergei Reshulsky of the Communist party: <…> …”if anyone has time to look”. Really, no one sitting in this room, except those who worked in the Committee, this bill, prepared for the second reading, did not have time to watch. This maintenance? On keeping!
Krasheninnikov: I can answer that.
Reshulsky: No, wait, I’m going to ask you.
Krasheninnikov: Any bill, many do not have time to watch, it’s no secret.
Reshulsky: It is “many” I don’t know who to include. We are serious people, we are watching them. <…> I believe that the law has been prepared with violations. The amendments are adopted, substitute all the MPs, most of the setting here, the article on extremism. And I want for example the people’s party of Russia — you give me the word give, when the first table we come to bring it all… That is, if we accept the bill in this edition, all the polls in Russia… (Microphone turned off.)
Vote whether to agree with the bulk of the amendments, discuss them
Reshulsky: I Will speak only for maintenance. Dear colleagues, we have good man — Alexander kitten. He always says what he thinks. And here he is a joke now you said exactly what we all now say: for these and other signs of fall all members, because people in positions kotenkova will determine you are an extremist, you said so or you’re not, you said not so, well, not exactly kitten will determine and will define people in such a position.
Kolomeytsev: Alexander, unfortunately, you are only concerned about sex, and I’m still mass protests. On Saturday I had a conversation with the police chief, which, even without reading the law, says, that as soon as this law will take you more to hold their shares will not be here. Alexander A…. (Microphone turned off.)
Presiding judge: It is not maintenance. Can you please turn off the microphone.
Elena Mizulina, the ATP: <…> What is the value of this law? That he formulates concepts and principles, i.e., specifies a certain level of legal culture in society, which is still good for society and what is bad.
Sergei Reshulsky: so I listened to Elena Borisovna and I want to say: Elena Borisovna, dear, that’s three years ago you came up purely by this article, the definition of extremist, because you criticized, argued, resented… <…> In these articles just laid down rules on which someone at the top arbitrarily be identified at any position to fit each person who is troubled by the situation in one or another region in the country. Water it will shut off, he was troubled, his features fail and say, “Extremist. Come here, darling.”
Vladimir Kalyagin, the Communist party: <…> Imagine the situation: a serious researcher engaged in the study of German fascism (of course, in order not to repeat the mistakes of the past, they need to know) and defines objective reasons for the emergence of fascism. He justifies it this way? You will say no. And I assure you that there is a Prosecutor who will bring him to justice, and the book will fall into the prohibited list. <…>
Extremist materials — that’s all, I repeat, the prosecutors in this case, the official, deems extremist. What are we, back to the middle ages or what back?
Discussion of the amendments continues, the deputies argue about what the swastika should be banned — fascist, any, or one that is similar to Nazi “confusingly”. Someone of the deputies wants to break
Presiding judge: Please conduct the Deputy Kalyagin.
Kalyagin: I just pay attention for the information for the record: the 78.
Presiding Officer: Okay. Deputy Bulavinov, maintenance.
The Bulavinov: Dear colleagues, given that yesterday we worked until 10 PM, and today — without interruption, I suggest, because in these two days reported the fraction of SPS, to recognize them as extremists that are now the members are, and to support this bill at second reading. (Animation in the hall)
Presiding judge: colleagues, put to the vote the draft Federal law “On countering extremist activities” in second reading. Please enable a vote. Anyone without a card and would like to vote? Please show me the results.
The results of the vote (15 hour. 19 min 25 sec.) Voted for 272 people of 60.4% Voted against 126 of 28.0%. 2 people abstained 0,4% Voted 400 people voted 50. a Result: accepted
The bill passed its second reading.
The Deputy Denisov spoke about the political order, proposes to dismiss the Government and to disperse the state Duma, to free Putin from the “Yeltsin’s entourage”
<…>A week later. June 27, 2002. Read the third and final.
Published fragments of the transcripts of the readings are virtually no abbreviations, so readers can understand how quickly it passed.
Chairman: Colleagues, we now move on to the bills third reading. Item 3: “On countering extremist activities”, the speaker — Pavel Vladimirovich Krasheninnikov. (Noise in the hall). I don’t know, colleagues, you, probably, can’t either. Sit down, very noisy.
Now, Georgy, after Krasheninnikov. I’ll give you the word after Krasheninnikov.
Krasheninnikov: Dear colleagues, we have recently adopted in the second reading the law “On countering extremist activities”. Amendments were really a lot, more than a hundred. Carried out legal and linguistic examination. The Committee believes that it is possible to adopt the bill in third reading.
Presiding officer: You right and the next report, and then I’ll let George Ivanovich word for management.
Krasheninnikov: for the second draft of the law, it follows from the first is the bill “On amendments and additions to legislative acts of the Russian Federation in connection with adoption of the Federal law “On countering extremist activities””. Also carried out legal and linguistic examination. All the conclusions are. We believe that the bill can also be taken at third reading.
The presiding officer: are There any questions for the speaker?
Have a seat. Bills submitted for “hour of voting”.
Voted on the draft law number 3: “On countering extremist activities”.
Please vote. Bill number 3.
Anyone without a card? Deputy Safiullin without a card, for.
Show the results.
The results of the vote (11 hour. 46 min 52 sec) Voted for 274 people 60,9% Voted against 145 persons 32.2% Abstain 0 friends. 0,0% Voted 419 people did Not vote 31 people Result: accepted
Thus, the bill number 4: “On amendments and additions to legislative acts of the Russian Federation in connection with adoption of the Federal law “On countering extremist activities””. Put to the vote. Please vote.
Anyone without a card? Deputy Safiullin.
Show the results.
The results of the vote (11 hour. 47 min 36 sec.) Voted 283 person 62,9% of votes against 139 people of 30.9% Abstained 0 people. 0,0% Voted 422 people did Not vote 28 patients Result: accepted
Before the advent of Facebook remained two years, before the advent of “Vkontakte” and “Classmates” — four, before widespread criminal cases for extremism in social networks — about ten years.