The number of new companies in Russia fell for the first time in 2014

Following last year’s increase in the number of companies in Russia about 200 thousand official statistics show a reversal in 2016, most businesses are closed than created. According to data FNS, in the first half of 2016, the newly created commercial companies was less than that of the defunct, — 218,5 thousand against 242,4 thousand

For comparison: in the first half of 2015 were created 222,9 thousand companies and ceased operations less than 2.5 times of just over 87 thousand For the whole of last year, there were almost two times more commercial entities than closed. In 2014, the number of firms is almost equal to the number of closed, and in 2013 was an increase of roughly 30 thousand legal entities.

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As believed

RBC used data on the number of new commercial companies registered in the register during the reporting period. Legal entity created by the reorganization of the business, no account was taken — as well as ceased to exist by reason of a reorganization. Among the companies that ceased operations were considered closed due to the liquidation (including bankruptcy) and exclusion from the register by decision of the registering authority. In the latter case we are talking about the so-called abandoned companies — those that do not conduct their activities during the year does not provide to the tax authorities reporting, explains the Tax Advisors partner Dmitry Kostalgin.

The cause of such a reversal on the decline? Not to say that in the country because of the economic downturn has stopped opening business: number of newly created legal entities for six months in 2016 was only 2% less than in the same period of 2015. Recession continues since the beginning of 2015, but last year this effect was not. But the number of companies that ceased operations increased almost three times — primarily due to the closure of a tax “abandoned companies”. In the first half of 2016, on excluded from the register is 213 thousand companies — more than all of last year (174 million). Thus, on including cleans the market from firms-a something ephemeral, the number of which has decreased from 1.7 million in 2011 to 650 thousand by the beginning of 2016, said in February the head of the FTS Mikhail Mishustin.

The Deputy head of the tax service Dmitry Grigorenko argues that the trend is indeed connected with the “cleaning” of the register of legal entities. Service excludes dormant companies, which for more than a year and provide financial statements and which have no account movements, he said RBC. Assessment, on July 1, there were 710 thousand signs ephemeral and “abandoned assets,” said RBC in the press-service of the Ministry. One-day firms may continue to appear at the same rate as now, says a source in the financial-economic bloc of the government, but the term “life” will be lower, including through efforts to combat them.

In may 2016, the government published resolution of the FTS, which contains a dozen of criteria for the identification of short-lived firms. Have on have the opportunity to write about the unreliability of information in the registry after registration of the company, explains Grigorenko: tax audits the company according to the criteria of risk analysis, including “mass address” or “mass Director”, and shall record in the registry of the unreliability of information in the case of risk criteria. If the results of check it is established that information to be included in the register, false, FNS may take a decision on refusal in the state registration, should be of the order.

RBC analyzed the statistics serves as an important point of change”, says the head of “Business Russia” Alexey Repik (organization represents the interests of small and medium business). In his opinion, such a change in the ratio of registered and liquidated companies is associated with a high degree of uncertainty in the economy and a negative investment expectations” on the part of business.

Deputy Director of the development Center of the Higher school of economy Valery Mironov believes that the decline of companies in 2016 linked with the reduction of the service sector and trade, where now is “blown bubble”, formed before the crisis amid high oil prices. Another possible factor is the sweep of the financial sector, which had enough of one-day firms. “To separate the two effects of recession and the “Dutch disease” and its implications and the clearing of the financial sector difficult,” he says. The declining trend of the business continues, if the recession in the economy will continue, the expert does not exclude.

According to FNS, on July 1, 2016, the number of existing Russian commercial organizations registered in the register, is 4,103 million (96% of them — is, OOO). At the beginning of year the number of such legal entities amounted to 4,150 million, and in early 2015 was 3,991 million. The statistics for the year of 2015 began to fully take account of the Crimean Federal district, now there was about 30 thousand commercial legal entities.

Previously, experts of the company “BIR-Analyst” (the help system for Russian legal entities, belongs to AEI “Prime”) estimate how many companies opened and closed in various Russian regions and industries in the years 2006-2015. From the statistics analyzed by the RBC, it turned out that the last serious economic crisis in Russia, it happened in 2008, but from the point of view of opening and closing a business the worst was the period 2011-2012.

As we thought

At the request of RBC experts “BIR-Analyst” estimate how many companies opened and closed in various Russian regions and industries in the years 2006-2015. For each region for each year we calculated the net opening as the difference between public and private companies in the region for the year. Dividing the “net opening” of the region’s population for the same year, we calculated the net increase of companies per capita by years and regions.

The size of the circles on the map corresponds to the “pure discovery” companies per capita in the region in the selected year. Click on a circle to view what industry developed in this region this year the most active (top 5 industries for “clean opening” in the region for the relevant period). Switch between years in the upper-right corner of the map.

The territory ahead of the opening

The last serious economic crisis in Russia, it happened in 2008, but from the point of view of opening and closing a business the worst crisis of 2011-2012. The map shows how the changing business climate of the Russian regions year after year.

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Regions-leaders and antileader the number of public companies (excluding liquidated) over the last ten years. Red indicates a negative difference, i.e. regions in which in the last decade, private companies were more than open.

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Industry, enjoyed the greatest popularity among entrepreneurs of the decade, the number of public companies in which the most exceeded the number closed. Red denotes sectors in which the number of liquidated legal entities exceeded the number of open.

According to the world Bank in Doing Business 2016, the Russian registration rate of new businesses dropped to seven lines down, while in the overall ranking, the country has risen from 62nd to 51st place. The registration rate takes into account the number of procedures required to open a new company, including interaction with government agencies, auditors, etc., the number of days required for registration of companies, the cost of opening and minimal Charter capital. The indication of the intensity of opening of new businesses, also calculate the world Bank (defined as the number of newly registered OOO is based on 1 thousand persons of the working-age population (ages 15-64) ), is 4.2. According to this indicator Russia is close to Romania (4,07).

With the participation of Ivan Tkachev